Reliability constitutes one of the qualitative foundations of science. Readers should have confidence that the authors of publications present the results of their work in a clear, accurate and reliable way, irrespective of whether they are the original authors of those publications or have benefitted from the assistance of specialists (a natural or legal person). Transparency of information concerning all parties contributing to a publication (content-related, material or financial contribution etc.) should be the proof of the ethical behaviour of a research worker and top editorial standards. Moreover, it is a sign of good practice and social responsibility.
The term ‘ghostwriting’ refers to situation when a person has made a significant contribution to a publication but their name is not listed among the authors or their role is not mentioned in the acknowledgments.
The term ‘guest authorship’ (‘honorary authorship’) refers to a situation when a person is mentioned as the author/a co-author of a publication in spite of the fact that their contribution is insignificant or non-existent.
Based on: Polish Scholarly Bibliography, https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/help/pl/czasopisma-i-ankiety/wyjasnienie-dotyczace-zjawiska-ghostwriting